Born on June 28, 1873; died November 5, 1944 at the age of 71.
French-American surgeons and biologists received the 1912 Nobel Prize in Physiology for developing the method of stitching blood vessels. He moved to the United States in 1905. As a member of the Rockefeller Institute, he performed remarkable work on the problem of keeping living tissue after removal from living organisms. The most famous example is a piece of tissue from the heart of a chicken embryo, held alive between 1912 and 1946, at which point the experiment was deliberately terminated.