Born 30 Oct 1928; died 16 Nov 1999 at age 71
American microbiologist, corecipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1978 (with American Hamilton Othanel Smith and Swiss scientist Werner Arber). The winners have been noted for his or her discovery and alertness of restrict enzymes, which give the “chemical knives” to reduce genes (= DNA) into described fragments. These might also additionally then be used (1) to decide the order of genes on chromosomes, (2) to examine the chemical shape of genes and of areas of DNA which modify the feature of genes, and (3) to create new mixtures of genes. Thus new avenues are opened to have a look at the primary troubles in developmental biology; and in medicine, to assist the prevention and remedy of malformations, hereditary illnesses and cancer.