Born on June 19, 1906; died on 12 August 1979 at the age of 73.
British German biochemist, who shared the 1945 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Sir Alexander Fleming and Howard Walter Florey for their work on penicillin. As a Jew, Chain fled the Nazis to England in 1933. His diverse studies include phospholipids, snake venom, tumor metabolism, and lysozyme. They performed the first clinical trials of this antibiotic. Chain’s mother and sister were killed in the Holocaust of World War II.